EARLY AMERICAN HISTORY OF THE FOLK & COMMERCIAL LANDLORD'S GAMES
ELIZABETH MAGIE-PHILLIPS: B: 1866 · Macomb, IL | D: 1948 · Arlington, VA
It is said that in the late 1800s, a young woman named Elizabeth Magie was introduced to the writings of Henry George by her father James Magie, a newspaper publisher and abolitionist during the mid-1800s. It is also said that Elizabeth eventually began teaching others what she learned from studying Henry George's book "Progress and Poverty" and his other works.
Elizabeth, or "Lizzie" as she came to be called, appears to have visited the Single Tax enclave of Arden, Delaware at least once or twice circa 1902-1903. Lizzie appears to have met Robert Woolery and worked with him on the design and/or development of the landlord's game. What is not historically clear at this time is who actually initiated and led the development of the landlord's game.
What is clear, is that Lizzie applied for a patent in March of 1903, which was granted on January 5th, 1904 (Pat. No. 748,626). However, The Landlord's Game was not produced commercially until 1906 by Lizzie and Georgist friends as the Economic Game Company. It does not appear the game was commercially successful.
It is interesting and should be noted that Lizzie's game board designs underwent significant and intriguing changes during the transition from her patent application to the original commercial game in 1906, not to mention the subsequent two designs in the 20's and 30s.
In addition, the original folk landlord's game board produced by Robert (Uncle Bob) Woolery of Arden, Delaware was developed and played before Lizzie's 1904 patent was issued and 3-4 years prior to the production of Lizzie's 1906 commercial game. While there are similarities between Woolery's game and Lizzies patent drawing and 1906 game, there are striking nuances that suggest the collaboration, if any, was superficial.
Meanwhile, folk landlord's games were proliferating from the original hand made folk landlord's game board produced by Bob Woolery (made using a circa 1901-1903 wood Carrom-Archarena Combination F Carrom-Crokinole game board).
It appears the Georgist Ardenites were unaware Elizabeth Magie patented and commercially produced The Landlord's Game during this era. Conversely, Lizzie did not realize how far the folk landlord's game subsequently evolved during this period by the time her first patent lapsed into the public domain in 1921, one year after The 1920 Philadelphia Folk MONOPOLY game was created. It appears Lizzie was also unaware of the independent folk monopoly game evolution at Wharton that evolved directly from Bob Woolery's folk landlord's game rather than Lizzie's 1906 version of the Landlord's game.
Well after her first patent expired in 1921, Lizzie modified The Landord's Game as evidenced by her second patent issued in 1924, Pat. # 1,509,312. The second patent had a revised game board with the railroads as the corner spaces. It appears there was little commercial interest in commercializing this patent at the time as "The Landlord's Game" was never issued as depicted in the second patent.
However, 8 years later in 1932, Lizzie produced another commercial game called "The Landlord's Game and Prosperity" under the second patent. This was the second commercial Landlord's Game and evidently the first that had two different rule sets. Once again however, the game was not commercially successful.
Curiously, the patent for this second commercial game was the patent Parker Brothers purchased in 1935 for it's newly acquired Monopoly game. Although by this time the second commercial game board no longer resembled the original commercial Landlord's Game, nor the distinctly different folk monopoly games that originally evolved out of the Wharton School circa 1914-1920. And, since the landlord's game was in the public domain, even before Lizzie's original 1904 patent was issued, let alone after it expired, it raises the question: Why did Parker Bros. bother to acquire the 2nd patent? The answer to that question was provided courtesy of Ralph Anspach.
It appears that it wasn't until sometime around 1935 that Lizzie became fully aware of the popularity of the folk monopoly games that far surpassed interest in the commercially unprofitable Landlord's Games. Probably about the time she became aware of the Charles Darrow monopoly game and the budding Parker Brothers relationship.
It was during this period that Lizzie engaged in a publicity campaign, including a photograph of her holding two game boards, one for the "The Landlord's Game and Prosperity" game and a second mockup of a fictional Monopoly Game board that evidently was never produced commercially. There is sufficient historical evidence of Lizzie's marketing and publicity skills to the point of distorting facts that date back at least to 1905.
SCOTT NEARING: B: Aug 06, 1883 · Kittanning, PA | D: Aug 24, 1983 · Harborside, Maine
Scott Nearing was born in Morris Run, Tioga County, Pennsylvania. He graduated from high school in 1901. Thereafter, after abandoning the study of Law, he enrolled in the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania (hereafter "Wharton") to study economics. Nearing obtained his BS in Economics in 1905 and his PhD in 1909. From 1908 until 1915 while living/ summering on his leased property at the Georgist enclave of Arden, Delaware, he taught economics at the Wharton School and Swarthmore College. Nearing was introduced to the folk landlord's game at Arden circa 1908. Research to date indicates Nearing had very little to no knowledge of Lizzie Magie and no first hand knowledge of her as they had never met during their lifetimes. He was teaching at Wharton and Swarthmore during this period until 1913 at Swarthmore and 1915 at Wharton.
Sometime while teaching at Wharton, Nearing introduced and used the folk landlord's game as part of his teaching method, initiating a game theory teaching approach still evident, albeit evolved, at Wharton today.
Scott Nearing’s opposition to child labor, caused him to be dismissed from the Wharton School in 1915. However, his reputation at the University was belatedly resurrected in modern times, when the university recognized the injustice of his dismissal.
Although folklore exists that Lizzie Magie created the monopoly game, there is no tangible evidence, prior to 1920, rule sets or otherwise, that supports the folklore. The facts indicate that folk monopoly incubated and evolved at Wharton from Bob Woolery's folk landlord's game.
HISTORY OF FOLK MONOPOLY, DARROW MONOPOLY & PARKER BROTHERS MONOPOLY.
Academic interest in folk landlord's games originated via Scott Nearing, and after 1915 via Rexford Guy Tugwell – a former student of Nearing, at Wharton. During the Wharton period, folk monopoly evolved from Woolery's folk landlord's game as a separate and distinct game. Folk monopoly game players at Wharton created their own customized game boards out of wood circa 1914-1916. It appears that most of the folk monopoly games discovered by Dr. Ralph Anspach, during the Anti-Monopoly lawsuits, have a historical lineage back to either Scott Nearing or Rexford Tugwell and the Wharton School. Although there is clearly a direct linkage between folk monopoly and Woolery's folk landlord's game, the same clarity of linkage, or evidence, has yet to be demonstrated between the folk monopoly games and Elizabeth Magie's Landord's games.
Based upon research to date, it appears the known folk monopoly games can trace their origin, evolution and/or lineage back to Wharton as a distinctly different game evolved by Wharton students from the folk landlord's game Scott Nearing introduced at the school circa 1908. This includes the folk monopoly based FINANCE game created by Dan Layman, first published in 1932, and by extension, the Atlantic City Quaker folk monopoly game taught to Charles Darrow in 1933. It is especially true regarding The 1920 Philadelphia Folk Monopoly Game which originated out of the University of Pennsylvania formally as MONOPOLY as taught by Rexford Guy Tugwell to the two Main Line Quaker brothers from Haverford College.
Charles Todd, a friend of Charles Darrow’s Quaker wife Esther, along with Jessie & Ruth Raiford taught Charles Darrow the Atlantic City Quaker folk monopoly game and gave him typed rule sets in 1933. Although Charles Darrow embellished the game into what turned out to be the most successful board game in history, he misrepresented himself as the game’s creator and therefore lied on his patent application about being the game's inventor.
Ralph Anspach later disproved Darrow's inventor status by establishing indisputable and obvious linkage between the Atlantic City Quaker folk monopoly game and Darrow’s version of the monopoly game.
Conversely, there are technical similarities between Woolery's folk landlord's game and the folk monopoly games that remained up to and including the time when the Charles Darrow monopoly game was taken over by Parker Brothers. Therefore, there are other folk monopoly games, beyond the Atlantic City Quaker folk monopoly game, that provide sufficient evidence that Charles Darrow's monopoly game was not created solely, nor primarily, from his "ingenious imagination". More details to follow at a later date.
Over forty years ago, Ralph Anspach began his quest for locating early folk monopoly game sets in order to prove monopoly was in the public domain long before Charles Darrow claimed to invent the game. However, Anspach was unable to obtain his ultimate goal to discover a game set with the word "monopoly" depicted on the game board. Ironically, one of the 1920 Philadelphia Folk Monopoly game's creators was deposed as part of Anspach's lawsuit.
In 2014, over forty years later, such a game resurfaced out of an estate sale, ironically about 7 miles from Arden, DE. This game, The 1920 Philadelphia Folk MONOPOLY Game, is the first known folk monopoly game and oldest MONOPOLY game to display the word “MONOPOLY” on the game board.
The 1920 Philadelphia Folk MONOPOLY Game establishes an important new chapter in the early pre-Darrow and pre-Parker Brothers history of the MONOPOLY game. Soon, this old MONOPOLY game will become an antique MONOPOLY game when it turns 100 years old in 2020. It is the oldest MONOPOLY game documented to date as evidenced by its age and the word MONOPOLY prominently displayed on the game board.
Circa 1901-1903 Combination Carrom-Crokinole Game Board Recycled by Robert Woolery for the 1902-03 Folk Landlord's Game Board
1914 - Joseph Buckwalter Folk Monopoly Game - Royersford, PA